– Properties of radiation: Overview of equations, terms, concepts – Solar Spectrum – Terrestrial Solar Radiation: Associated with atmosphere, slanted dependence of radiation, variation of solar the radiation – Calculation of Photo voltaic Radiation: • Estimate of intensity of solar rays • Angular Dependence – Solar Noon calculations – Time-based calculations – Photo voltaic Radiation Data Sets Extreme caution: Watch your units!!! Make sure you look closely at radians, levels. Also focus on details - which hemisphere, difference between solar noonday noontide, meridian and local period, etc .
ELEG620: Solar Electrical Systems School of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg
Solar power Radiation
– Calculate power density, photon flux, lichtquant energy, photon wavelength & relationships between them. Calculate properties of irrelavent light source presented its unreal irradiance – Calculate houses of dark-colored body the radiation: Max temp, total electric power. Convert regional time to solar power time – Determine aspects of event sunlight, equally at photo voltaic noon and since a function of your energy. Determine mild normal to a surface, by solar noon and at a great arbitrary time
ELEG620: Photo voltaic Electric Devices University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg
Properties of Radiation
Brief summary of equations & ideas: • Wave/energy relationship: Electromagnetic Spectrum
Prevalent units of one's: electron-V (eV)
1 eV = 1 ) 602x10-19 T
Power density (H, W/m²) and monochromatic photon flux (Φ, photons/sec·m²): – Power density (in W/m²) is photon debordement (# photons/m²·sec) multiplied by simply energy per photon.
hc 1 . twenty-four ⎛W ⎞ H⎜ a couple of ⎟ sama dengan Φ × ( L ) sama dengan qΦ λ λ (µm ) ⎝m �
ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University or college of Delaware, ECE Planting season 2008 C. Honsberg
• • • Spectral irradiance, F, is standard method to identify the properties of a source of light Gives the electricity density for a particular wavelength. W one particular Units happen to be m ² µm. The W/m² identifies the power thickness at specific wavelength, the µm refers to the wavelength at which the strength density is usually specified. The spectral irradiance of xenon (xe) (green), tungsten-halogen (blue) and mercury (red) light bulbs (left axis) will be compared to the spectral irradiance in the sun (purple, which corresponds to the right axis).
⎛W ⎞ ∞ H⎜ ⎟ = ∫ N (λ )dλ m² � 0 ⎝ = ∑ Fi (λ )∆λ i =1 And
continuous unreal irradiance Discrete spectral irradiance, N is usually # factors in F(λ)
ELEG620: Solar Electric Devices University of Delaware, ECE Spring 08 C. Honsberg
Black Body system Radiation
• Blackbody: emits based on its temperature; absorbs all lumination incident into it. • Spectral Irradiance pertaining to black physique: – Be based upon temperature of blackbody resource – ↑T -» ↑ power denseness, shifts spectrum more to blue
• Power denseness for blackbody:
H sama dengan σT some
• Wavelength at maximum spectral irradiance:
λp ( µm ) =
ELEG620: Solar Electric power Systems University or college of Delaware, ECE Planting season 2008 C. Honsberg
Solar power Radiation
• Sun approximates a dark body at ~6000K, radiating with a electricity density of Hsun ≈ 73MW/m². • Total electrical power emitted can be 4πR2sun, in which the radius with the sun, Rsun = 6th. 96 ×105 km. • Power denseness at a distance D from sun in the event given by: 2 ⎛ W ⎞ Rsun H⎜ ⎟ = a couple of × Hsun ⎝ m² � G
ELEG620: Sun Electric Devices University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg
• Globe's atmosphere has several influences on radiation:
– Scattering of ~10% of light triggers this lumination to hit earth's surface for a wide range of sides and caused by anywhere in the sky. It truly is most effective for higher strength photons. • Direct lumination is the light from the sunlight which actually reaches the earth devoid of scattering. • Diffuse lumination is scattered by the atmosphere. Absorption inside the atmosphere adjustments both the electric power density as well as the spectral division of terrestrial solar variety. • Ozone absorbs in high lichtquant energies. • Water vapor, CO2, absorb in infra-red. Clouds, different local deviation in ambiance introduce variability (both...
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